An Endoscope is a long thin tube with a miniature camera lens fixed on the tip of the tube, and a light source at the other. It is inserted in the body cavity of a person in order to view the inside of the intestines, oesophagus etc, and a magnified image of the relevant area is transmitted to a viewing monitor. The Endoscopy equipment consists of a control head and a flexible long tube containing several other tubes transmitting light, air, water or even suction.
Endoscopes pertaining to the specific parts of the body are developed in order to customise the procedures with regards to ailments relating to the abdominal cavity, lungs, bladder, uterus, nasal, rectum etc. For example, a gastro scope is used to view the insides of the stomach intestines; a laparoscope is used to look in anything from the gall bladder to the women’s reproductive organs etc.
Initially endoscopic instruments were only used to take images of the organs and intestines, today, live colour video can be viewed and all aspects of the affected area can be diagnosed first hand with the use of fibre optic instruments encasing thousands of mirrors and lens in a very tiny, flexible and compact tube.
With the advancement of modern technology and the development of the endoscopic equipments, these are also used to take a biopsy, suck formation of pus, and also perform surgeries such as hernia, fallopian tubal ligation, laser surgeries etc.
The patient is usually given anaesthesia for sedation and also given pain killing medications to avoid soreness or discomfort. The procedure is hardly invasive, although in some cases it requires tiny incisions depending on the requirement. After the procedure the patient is kept in observation for few hours till the effect of the anaesthesia wears off and is further checked for any discomforting effects or reactions.